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WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS EYE PROBLEMS?

Eye diseases or disorders are of wide variety. A lot of people experience eye problems and problems associated with their vision tends to increase with age. Besides, most of these issues are minor and don’t last for long. However, there are some serious eye problems that can cause major damage to the eyes, which includes permanent loss of vision. Most eye problems, even the serious ones, can be prevented. Such common preventable eye problems are:

Cataract: Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the main cause of blindness worldwide.

Metabolic Cataract: This includes patients who are having diabetes mellitus, galactosemia, hypocalcemia and Wilson’s disorder. Other cataracts include complicated cataract, toxic cataract and radiational cataract.

Glaucoma: It is a condition where due to multiple factors, there is loss of optic nerve fiber

Xerophthalmia: This includes structural changes affecting the conjunctiva, cornea and retina and also results in disorders that pertain to retinal rods and cone function.

WHAT CAUSES EYE PROBLEMS?

Cataract: Etiology could be hereditary, UV-Rays, Dietary deficiency of vitamin E, C, B and proteins. Senile cataracts are age related, most common in geriatric population.

Metabolic Cataract: Metabolic disorders – Diabetes Mellitus, Galactosemia etc.

Glaucoma: Too much aqueous production or obstruction of its outflow from the eye causes an increase in the intraocular pressure (IOP), which can lead to glaucoma. Autoimmune reactions, increased concentration of nitrous oxide and increased concentration of glutamate. The most common cause of glaucoma is primary open angle glaucoma in which there is an imbalance in the production and drainage of the clear fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye (it is the space between the iris and the cornea). Over time, high eye pressure can cause irreversible nerve damage and vision loss.

Xerophthalmia: This is the most common cause of blindness in children. It is caused due to vitamin A deficiency.

If you notice difficulty in your sight, constant irritation and should the basic home remedies not suffice, online eye doctor consultation at your convenience.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF EYE PROBLEMS?

Cataract: People may experience blurred vision, have inability to see in dim light, seeing halos around lights, or vision loss

Metabolic Cataract: Blurry vision, difficulty reading in dim light, poor vision at night, glare and halos around lights, and occasionally double vision. Frequent changes in the prescription of glasses

Glaucoma: Mild headache, eye ache. Difficulty in reading and close work. Frequent change of presbyopia (far sighted) glasses. There is a delay in dark adaptation. There are also many different changes in the parts of the eye examined through slit lamp, fundoscopy.

Xerophthalmia: Night blindness, dry eye, corneal scarring and bitot's spots, which are the buildup of keratin located superficially in the conjunctiva of human´s eyes. They can be oval, triangular or irregular in shape. The spots are a sign of vitamin A deficiency that are characterized with the drying of the cornea.

WHAT ARE THE TREATMENTS FOR EYE PROBLEMS?

Cataract: The first line of treatment is surgery

Metabolic Cataract: Surgery

Glaucoma: Medical therapy, Laser therapy and Surgical therapy

Xerophthalmia: Topical artificial tears, most importantly Vit A Therapy

Treatment of underlying conditions like PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition).

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